Industrial Revolution- A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. Q. South Africa the country- Black- 76% White- 13% Asian- 3% Mixed- 13% Each with different legal status Nationality/Nationalism: Nationality is identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there. Tags: Question 8 . Around 5500BC hunting was mostly replaced by domesticating animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats, as well as growing cereal grains. DRAFT. Examples- Apple computers/Martin Luther King Jr. (he is dead but his thought process still lives on). Also, transportation is a problem with immigration. High lands- Few people live at high elevations. Nation-State: A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality Have by far one dominate ethnicity/nationality – 1 country, 1 ethnicity Self Determinism (Separatism): The concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves Quebec (Province in Canada) – early 1980s strong French Australia Israel/Palestine Native Americans Multi-Ethnic States/Multi-National States: Multi-Ethnic state – state that contains more than one ethnicity Don’t necessarily try to appeal to every ethnicity – sometimes happy, sometimes not Belgium = (Dutch = Flemish = North + French = Walloons = South) Multi-National state – state that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities Try to appeal to every nationality/ethnicity (by giving them jobs) – get along just fine United Kingdom = England + Scotland + Whales + N. Ireland Block Busting: Real estate agents telling people that blacks or Indians were going to move next door to them so they could buy the peoples’ house for very cheap and sell it for double. ß Medical Revolution- Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. The first part is the accelerating population growth. Population Pyramid- A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. There are 4 stages in the Demographic Transition. 2.4k plays . The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population. They promoted development by concentrating on producing manufactured goods, especially clothing and electronics. Pandemic- Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population. Cartography: The science of map making Toponym: A name given to a place on earth. Examples - International Migration- Moving to Russia from the United States, or from Africa to Australia. the most rapid growth is occurring in the less developed countries. Guest Workers – Citizens of poor communities who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East. ...
the Medical Revolution
the Scientific RevolutionTags: Question 11 . Ungraded . Shifting Cultivation: A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period Cultivation where tropical forests are removed by cutting and burning, ash contributes to soil fertility Clearings are usually abandoned after a few years for newly cleared land (150-200 million people) Intensive Subsistence Agriculture: A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land Pastoral Nomadism: A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals They live in dry climates Ranching: A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area Semi-arid or arid land MDC’s Transhumance: The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures Commercial Farming: Aka agribusiness- a system of economic and political relationships that organize food production from the development of the genetic makeup of the seeds to the retailing and consumption of the agricultural product- not just farming also development, harvesting, canning, and selling of crops- is an example of a company that incorporates primary, secondary, and tertiary job sectors Mass profit, almost all diary products are from commercial farming Ex. ÷ ÷ ò ê ò ê ò ê ò ê ò ê ò ê ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò It began with low natural increase in stage 1, in stage 2 there is a huge increase in technology and population. The white-dominated government of South Africa repealed the apartheid laws in 1991. AIDS is an example of relocation diffusion. ecumene: A portion of the Earth occupied by permanent human settlement: Industrial Revolution The first states to evolve in Mesopotamia were known as city-states – sovereign states that comprise a town and the surrounding countryside. Lester Brown a Stanford University biologist, said Malthus made critical points but missed a couple important points, gains in land productivity, and the preference for eating “higher up the food chain”. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. Human Population . Population. This is known as ZPG or Zero Population Growth. Several medical advances were made during this time as well. Divided into two types- Interregional migration- movement from one region of a country to another. The US evacuated from Saigon several thousand people who had been closely identified with the American position during the war and who were therefore vulnerable to persecution after the Communist victory. medical revolution. Greenwich Mean Time: The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or zero degrees longitude. 20 seconds . Industries in US: New England, Middle Atlantic, Mohawk Valley, Pittsburgh-Lake Erie, Western Great Lakes Bulk-Reducing Industry: An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs Example- Copper concentration (pennies) Bulk-Gaining Industry: An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs Example- Soft-drink bottling Break-of-Bulk Point: A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another Urban: Filtering – Urban Decay – Inner-City Decay: The slow digression of a city, usually occupied by low-income people The peripheral model helped to promote this because of the middle-class people moving to the outskirts Redlining: Banks purposely not giving loans to a certain low-income area of a city Illegal, but still happens because it’s hard to prove Urban Renewal: Done by the government To attract businesses To clean up the city and help their reputations Public Housing: Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families’ incomes Gentrification: Done privately The process of high income people going to low income places and kicking the people out Usually areas where houses are worn down, looks very trashy The high income people build houses in edgy areas because they want to cut down on their commute Annexation: Official adding of land Can be on national scale or state scale Peripheral Model: Latest version- most up to date Developed in the 1990s (other three developed in early 1900s – outdated) Has to contain a beltway/ring way/ring road A ring road is a road that surrounds the core of the city The purpose is to take this road without going through the city The core of the city – major part – is in the ring road Must contain an edge city Promotes greenbelts Sprawl: The adding of land- not necessarily official Adding/spreading to the metropolitan area (the city and surrounding areas) Taking up arable land Spreads outwards Promotes greenbelts Greenbelts: Designated areas not allowed to be touched by development (parks, nature trails) Sections of land that are designated natural areas- they cannot be built upon Smart Growth: Instead of building outwards they build upwards to save land Increases population density Saves natural areas Central Business District (CBD): Where all big businesses take place in a city Node Nuclei Edge City: Little mini cities on the outskirts that are like the big cities Lots of edge cities in Atlanta Ex. Rust Belt and Sun Belt Intraregional migration- movement within on region International Migration: Divided into two types- Voluntary migration- implies that migrant has chosen to move for economic improvements. Ap Human Geography: Chapter 2 Flashcard questionIndustrial Revolution answerled to the transition of North America and Europe to Stage 2 of Demographic Transition. As time went on the cultivated plant foods became increasingly important to the people of Mesoamerica. NEW! Ethnicity and Race: Race is biological. Search » All » Geography » AP Human Geography » AP Human Geo #2. These areas cover about 20% of the earth’s land surface. Internal Migration- People living in India must migrate to a different part of India to escape the flooding that occurs near them. Latin American and Asian countries have entered rather recently, while most African countries still have not entered stage 3. This was caused by the agricultural revolution. Play this game to review Environment. Folk culture diffuses slowly to other locations through the process of migration. 14 . Roswell and Alpharetta – has most of the services as in big cities A.K.A. Term: Medical Revolution Definition: Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. On a scattergram, each country in table 5 would be shown as a point located from the horizontal (GNP) and vertical (growth rate) axes. Graph the GNP and population growth rate data from table 5 to show the relationship between rate of population growth and poverty. Brain Drain: Large-scale emigration by talented people International & Internal Migration: International Migration- The permanent movement from one country to another. 2.3k plays . Balkanization: States/countries breaking down through ethnic conflict – constant conflict Balkanized: A geographic area that can’t be stable/happy because there are too many ethnicities and too much ugly history between them. ... AP Human Geography Ethnicity, Race, and Political Geography . 3 years ago. Ethnic groups may live in particular regions of the country, and they may live in particular neighborhoods within cities. These areas are unfavorable for human life. Separate But Equal Doctrine: The Separate But Equal Doctrine occurred in 1896. Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. The number of males per 100 females in a population. Created. New machines helped farmers increase agricultural production. Popular culture diffuses rapidly across Earth to locations with a variety of physical conditions. When a country enters stage 4, it has in a sense completed a cycle. Like language, migrants take their religion with them to new locations, but although migrants typically learn the language of the new location, they retain their religion. South Asia includes: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. Crude death rate (CDR)- total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. ... Medical Revolution: Definition. Arithmetic – the total number of objects in an area Physiological – the number of persons per unit area of suitable agricultural land Agricultural – number of farmers per area of farmland Concentration: The spread of something over a given area Clustered – close together Dispersed – far apart Pattern: The arrangement of objects in space Culture: Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a group of people in tradition Hearth: Where an idea originates Acculturation: The spread of cultural traits from one society to another Diffusion: The spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another. Cold lands- Cold lands are areas that are covered with ice or have permanently frozen ground. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Example- influenza (flu). Y g h £ ¼ ½ õ . Seen here... is a population pyramid of Scotland, which is in this stage of the demographic transition model. Vietnam: The long Vietnam War ended in 1975 when Communist-controlled North Vietnam captured South Vietnam’s capital city of Saigon. Infant Mortality Rate- The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society. Also an area that is storm prone can force people to migrate. Q. A good example is Roman Catholicism (Pope, Cardinals, Bishops). Social changes again dictate the change between stages 3 and 4. Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Nearly all are islands in the Pacific Ocean or Caribbean Sea State Shapes: Compact State- a state in which the distance form the center to any boundary does not vary significantly Fragmented State- a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory Elongated State- a state with a long, narrow shape Prorupted State- an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension Perforated State- a state that completely surrounds another one Boundaries: Can see on a map: Physical- natural boundaries (oceans, rivers, mountains) Geometric- main official lines Can’t see on a map: Culture Religious Language Federal State: An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government (have a say so) Centripetal forces Example- US Unitary State: An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials (not necessarily bad, but no say so- only government) Centrifugal forces Example- UK United Nations: A cooperation under the political category; Deals with military, economic, agricultural, etc. This is the scientific study of characteristics of population, The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support, A portion of earth's surface occupied permanently by human settlement., This English economist that argued that population will increase geometrically rather than arithmetically. The death rate continues to fall but not as much as in stage 2. Not to make a profit or sell. Scale: The relationship to a feature’s size on a map to its actual size on earth. the first cities were constructed in the southern part of the crescent valley, near the Persian Gulf, by people who became known as the Sumerians. The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering. AP Human Geography Course and Exam Description This is the core document for the course. Tags: Question 38 . Southeast Asia: The world’s third largest population cluster is in southeast Asia. A half billion people live in southeast Asia. Religious values are important in understanding not only how people identify themselves, as was the case with language, but also the meaningful ways that they organize the landscape. Around 1750 AD the population began to grow ten times as fast. Life Expectancy- The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and … Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. The historic high was in 1989 with 87 million. It is believed that many nomadic hunters settled the land. They also raised domestic dogs, pigs, and chickens. International Migration- Some Jewish people were able to escape the Nazis by migrating to the different countries away from them. With the flooding of rivers irrigation was an important thing to master. The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society. When farming became more dependable and common irrigation was exploited. Israelis have no intention of giving up control of the Old City of Jerusalem, and Palestinians have no intention of giving up their claim to it. Pop & Folk Culture: Popular Culture: Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics Folk Culture: Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups Origin of Folk Cultures: Folk customs often have anonymous hearths, originating from anonymous sources, at unknown dates, through unidentified originators Origin of Pop Cultures: Popular culture is most often a product of the economically more developed countries, especially in North America, Western Europe, and Japan Transition from Folk to Pop Culture: Most of the world turns from folk to pop culture. If you go west you go back in time. Options. Total Fertility Rate- The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years. SURVEY . The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture. Medical Revolution. If you are allowed to work in another country there is usually a time limit for how long you can stay for your desired assignment. Causes of Population Increase: Crude birth rate (CBR)- The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. These polar regions are unsuitable for crops and animals. diffusion of medical practices. It allowed segregation of Blacks, Jews, and Roman Catholics. Self Sufficiency: The more popular development alternative for LDCs for most of the 20th century Incomes in the countryside keep up with those in the city Reducing poverty is more important than creating wealthy consumers Fragile businesses can be independent and protected from businesses and governments in MDCs Set barriers limiting goods being imported International Trade: A country can develop economically by concentrating scarce resources on expansion of its distinctive local industries Transnational Corporation: A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located Centripetal Force: An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state Centrifugal Force: An attitude that tends to break or make people fall apart- fight Agriculture: Agriculture=farming+livestock Before 12,000 BC- hunting and gathering- no agriculture Agricultural Hearths: Fertile Crescent- historical region watered by the Nile, Jordan, Euphrates, and Tigris Rivers. Once a country has entered a stage, it cannot go back down to a previous stage. Help. Crude birth and death rates vary yearly but over time they were comparable. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Subsistence Agriculture: Self-sufficient, small in scale, low technology, Food production for local consumption- not for trade or sale Some are confined to small fields- very likely they do not own the soil they till Small fields-share cropper, low end money pull for agriculture Can promote cohesiveness within society, share land, food surpluses, personal wealth is restricted Cultivators are poor but free Subsistence farming is growing enough food for one person and their family. Life expectancy measures the number of years a newborn will be expected to live. The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality. The development of states can be traced to the ancient Middle East, in an area known as the Fertile crescent. � Crude Birth Rate- The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society. Malthus Theory: States that the world will get wiped out by over population, starvation, and disease (mainly the ratio of people to food). This probably began so they would have food to rely on if hunting became bad or in the event of a drought. National increase rate was essentially zero, and world population was constant at about half a million. Involves growing numbers. Lots of subsistence farms grow things like tomatoes, corn, potatoes, cucumbers, and spinach. Countries Attitudes Towards New Immigrants Making it to the desired country isn’t always the end of the complications, once the immigrants reach the country, the citizens may dislike the new people because of cultural differences. AP Human Geography- Chapter 2 Review (Population) ... Industrial Revolution. 30 seconds . Servia Boznia Balkan Peninsula Political Geography: Colonies, Early European States, and Ancient and Medieval States: A colony is a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than being completely independent. Geography. The Chinese also farmed rice. Millions of people were captured and shipped to many different countries as prisoners or slaves. SURVEY . ' The three religions most affected were Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. Its long narrow floodplain provided ideal conditions for settlement and development of stable communities. Global Warming could interfere with food production. 10/03/2010. Relocation – spreading through physical movement. It is here that agricultural is thought to be first developed. &. THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION Stage One: CBR ... NIR- high Population Growth: High Movement from Stage One to Stage Two: MDC- Industrial Revolution LDC- Medical Revolution Movement from Stage Two to Stage Three: Changes in Social customs and improved technology. Place: Human Characteristics Physical Characteristics 3. Hierarchical Diffusion – The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other people or places. AP Human Geography Unit 2 Vocabulary; Ap Human Geography Unit 2 Vocabulary. The population increased by about 80 million in 2000 compared to 8 million in 1900. Countries elsewhere didn’t enter stage 2 till much later. 3.5k plays . In 1994, Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa. Countries with net in-migrations include North America, Europe, and Oceania. European and North American nations entered stage 3 in the early twentieth century. Sparsely Populated Regions: Dry Lands- When an area is dry for farming not many people want to live there. Report an issue . Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Stage 4: A country achieves stage 4 when birth and death rates are nearly equal and natural increase is almost zero. Doubling Time- The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family. However, it is clear that the world's population continues to grow, in other words, more people are being born than people dying. Fractional Scale – numerical ratio 1:24,000 Written Scale – description in words “1 inch equals 1 mile” Graphic Scale – bar line showing distance 0 5 10 MILES Site: The physical characteristic of a place Situation: The relative location of a place Meridian: Lines of longitude running in the north-south direction ending at the poles Parallel: Lines of latitude parallel to the equator Time Zone: Greenwich Mean Time – The time at the prime meridian International Date Line – 180 degrees from Prime Meridian – 24 hours Telling time from longitude – every 15 degrees. One important feature of the world’s population with the most significant future implications is that. Modern Colonies: Today only a handful of colonies remain. ... Late 20th century push of countries into stage 2 caused by new medical technology: The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. Total Cards. F Total Cards. 13. Edit. Level. This brought about a lot of wealth which was used to make communities healthier. Crude Death Rate- The total number of deaths in a year fro every 1,000 people alive in the society. Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition. Zero population growth occurs when the TFR (total fertility rate) is at The natural; increase rate for stage 2 countries was about 1.7 at the time. During the second part the population begins to slow, although birth and death rates remain very separated. 300. (States the physical terrain of the world dictates how the humans survive). AP Human Geography- Chapter 2 Review (Population) Send article as PDF . Sharecropper: A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops Ghettos: When the African American immigrants reached the big cities, they clustered in the one or two neighborhoods where the small numbers who had arrived in the 19th century were already living. If you go east you go forwards in time. OVERPOPULATION . Economic push and pull factors usually induce voluntary migration. People are attracted to democratic countries that encourage individual choice in education, career, and a place of residence. It clearly lays out the course content and describes the exam and AP Program in general. AP Human Geography Rubenstien's Ch. The Medical Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Pull factor: when people desire to move into a new location Ex: Better job opening in a new area, a good place to retire. To study fertility, geographers most frequently use the. Forced migration- the migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors. ... Medical Revolution: Definition. The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society. Vocabulary. Some are orchards, in which they would grow fruit, (that grow on trees). The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Most of humanity’s several-hundred-thousand-year occupancy of Earth was characterized by stage 1 of the demographic transition. The sudden population boom was caused by the industrial revolution which began in England in the late 18th century. Ö Expansion – Spreading in a snowballing process Contagious– rapid widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population – example - influenza Hierarchical- The spread from authority or power to other people – example – political leaders or hip hop music Stimulus– the spread of an underlying principal though the characteristic itself might diffuse – example – principals from Apple computer though the company diffused. The largest desert region is the Sahara. Medical Revolution: Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Scientists use the more accurate term TFR or Total Fertility Rate. They also raise animals like cows, pigs, and chickens. Southeast Asia- Prior to agriculture, hunting and gathering sufficed to proved food in Southeast Asia. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. sudden injection of medical technology from developed nations. Internal Migration: Permanent movement within a country. the Scientific Revolution. ... Medical revolution. Natural Increase Rate- The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. In stage 4 the growth is minimal. Wet Lands- Wet lands are lands that receive high levels of precipitation. The European portion of the Roman Empire was fragmented into a large number of estates owned by competing kings, dukes, barons, and other nobles. Medical revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Western Europe: World’s fourth largest population cluster. ‹ 2. Between 8000 BC and 1750 AD the population from 5 million to about 800 million. Almost all dairy products come from a commercial farm. Universalizing Religion: A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location 3 Big – Christianity, Islam, Buddhism Christianity: Origin – Israel 2 billion adherents Known as Christians Mainly in Western Hemisphere and Europe Foundation based on the Ten Commandments Major branches- Catholics (50%). Low growth, high growth, moderate growth, and low growth. Natural increase rate (NIR)- the percentage by which a population grows in a year. Density does not tell you where something is, just strictly numbers Arithmetic Density: The total number of people divided by the total land area Physiological Density: The total number of people divided by all arable land (farmland) Agricultural Density: The total number of farmers (and family) divided by all arable land Concentration: The spread of something over a given area; Concentration tells you where something is; Can be clustered or dispersed Pattern: The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area Diffusion: The spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another over time Relocation Diffusion: The spread of a feature or trend through physical movement of people from one place to another. ... AP Human Geography Unit 2 review. The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society. Some people prefer to live at higher elevations if the temperature and precipitation are uncomfortable at lower elevations. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. Infant mortality rate- The annual number of deaths of infants under one year old. Deserts lack sufficient water to grow crops to feed many people. 6 > ? The islands are: Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Borneo), Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines. Language Group: A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary Dialect: A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation Old English Speakers: West Germanic invaders from Jutland (Denmark) known as the Anglos, Saxons, and Jutes began populating the British Isles in the 5th and 6th centuries AD Pushed the native Celtic speaking people into Scotland, Whales, and Ireland Creolized Language: A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated French Creole in Haiti Papiamento (Creolized Spanish) in Netherlands Antilles (West Indies) Portuguese Creole in the Cape Verde Islands off the African Coast Indo-European Language Family: The world’s most extensively spoken language family by a wide margin Nearly 3 billion people speak an Indo-European language as their first language Eight Branches: Indo-Iranian Romance Germanic Balto-Slavic Albanian Armenian Greek Celtic 10 most Spoken Languages in the World: Position LanguageFamilyScript UsedSpeakers (Millions)Where Spoken (Major)1MandarinSino-TibetanChinese Characters885China, Malaysia, Taiwan2EnglishIndo-EuropeanLatin332USA, UK, Australia, Canada, New Zealand3SpanishIndo-EuropeanLatin322South America, Central America, Spain4ArabicAfro-AsiaticArabic235ME, Arabia, North Africa5BengaliIndo-EuropeanBengali189Bangladesh, Eastern India6HindiIndo-EuropeanDevanagari182North and Central India7PortugueseIndo-EuropeanLatin170Brazil, Portugal, Southern Africa8RussianIndo-EuropeanCyrillic170Russia, Central Asia9JapaneseAltaicChinese Characters and 2 Japanese Alphabets125Japan10GermanIndo-EuropeanLatin98Germany, Austria, Central Europe Ideograms: The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English Religion: Religion, Culture, and Physical Environment People care deeply about their religion and draw from religion their core values and beliefs, an essential element of the definition of culture. Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. South Africa Apartheid: Apartheid is the physical separation of different races into different areas. A brand new industry or store could attract technicians, scientists, engineers, or other workers. The Four Dragons: Some of the first countries to adopt the international trade alternatives were South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and the then-British colony of Hong Kong (known as the four dragons). 71% average accuracy. The medical revolution has been characterized by. As food became easier to obtain, population increased, but when food became more difficult to obtain, the population decreased. Nearly all the world's population growth is clustered in what areas? Epidemiology- Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people. Geography. k9 < < < ¾ Ø + G + G T9 < ¶ T9 < < â Ä4 ¤ + + ´6 @uHH*ÀÍ ? Agricultural technology was exploited when population increased to the point that systematic intensive farming was necessary for survival. River plains and delta regions helped the process of agriculture and trade. The total number of people divided by the total land area. 25. Some subsistence farms also have livestock. SURVEY . Range- the maximum distance- the amount of distance a person is willing to drive to the threshold Concentric Zone Model: A general model that cities are based upon that Burgess developed in 1925 The plan of a city (urban planner) may be based on the concentric zone model Relates the distance to the city to how wealthy a family is The wealthier you are the bigger land you have and the farther away from the city you are 6 Concentric Zones: Zone 1- CBD Zone 2- immediately adjacent to CBD (factories and manufacturing plants- where things are produced without much pollution- not nasty) Zone 3- contains poorest segments of the urban population, low income housing areas, low income people have factory jobs and do not use car for transportation Zone 4- working class Zone 5- middle class, not struggling, higher quality housing Zone 6- high class, expensive housing The zones expand- build out not up The concentric zone model has two main problems: outdated and only applies to America Sector Model: Has arms that extend from the CBD instead of circles CBD still in center of city Lower income still near manufacturing areas Transportation and manufacturing most likely along an “arm” Multiple Nuclei Model: Attributes: Differential Accessibility- people don’t just go to the same CBD all the time- they go to different places Land Use Compatibility- related businesses are close together, centripetal forces Land Use Incompatibly- conflicting businesses are sent apart from each other, centrifugal forces Location Suitability- suitable for certain activities Transportation; 40 percent of all trips made into or out of a CBD occur during four hours of the day- two in the morning and two in the afternoon In larger cities, public transportation is better than motor vehicles- cheaper, less polluting, and more energy-efficient Americans prefer to commute by car Infrastructure: What makes a city work or operate Example- electricity, sewers, road ways Suburbanization: The growth of suburbs was constrained by transportation problems The invention of the railroad in the 19th century enabled people to live in suburbs and work in the central city Many so-called streetcar suburbs built in the 19th century still exist and retain unique visual identities Hinterland: Same as range in the central place theory Area around the city that the city serves The farthest distance a city is willing to serve - Y Z t w § ª â å h The decrease in death rates in stage 2 is caused by technological advances, while the decrease in births during stage 3 is a result of changes in social customs. European and North American countries entered stage 2 around 1750 or 1800. East Asia includes: eastern China, Japan, the Korean Peninsula, and Taiwan. The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. An example would be a hearth. Plantation Farming: Regional, bigger scale, but not yet commercial Plantation farming is on a bigger scale than subsistence, but not yet commercial. 9th Grade. Due to discrepancies, ZPG is not always accurate. Medical Revolution: Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. The aver number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. About 8000 BC the population became to grow by several thousand per year. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and … – ¦ h5 Ğ6 „ �9 0 ±9 ~5 6 [> < [> , ´6 < + ´6 ¶ ¶ ¶ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ ÿÿÿÿ j ‡ ñ : AP Human Geography Notes General Geography: US road map is not a thematic map Every meridian is the same length and has the same beginning and end According to environmental determinism, the physical environment causes social development Highest density: most in numbers Highest concentration: closest together Cloropleth map uses shading Five Themes of Geography: 1. Intervening Obstacles Immigrants may not always get to there destination because of an environmental or cultural obstacle. An example would be skin color, but its not just skin color. Ex: a (CBR) of 20 means that for every 1,000 people in a country, 20 babies are born over a one year period. Ecumene- The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement. From Prime Meridian going west loose 1 hour/15 degrees – east gain 1 hour/15 degrees Regions: Formal (Uniform) – Everyone shared distinct characteristics Functional (Nodal) – Area organized around a focal point Vernacular – A perceptual region – beliefs and cultural identity Spatial Association: The distribution of one phenomenon that is scientifically related to the location of another phenomenon Spatial Distribution: The arrangement of phenomenon across the earth’s surface Distribution: The arrangement of a feature in a space Three types – density, concentration, pattern Density: The frequency of which something occurs. Infant mortality rate (IMR)-the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Medical Revolution – Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Pull- people migrate for especially the lure of freedom. Q. When you go west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day. 9th - 11th grade. Contagious Diffusion – The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population. Many plantations farm rubber, pine, spruce, and eucalyptus trees, oil palm, cotton, tea, and tobacco. Believe in several gods – Brahma being the main one Follow the Caste System Believe in Karma and Reincarnation Judaism: Origin – Israel 14 million adherents Mainly clustered in Israel and the US Also prevent in former USSR (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania) Have similar roots as Christianity and Islam Ireland: The most troublesome religious boundary in Western Europe lies on Ireland. Many African countries didn’t enter stage 2 until the late 1950’s due to the medical revolution. Globalization of Culture: Globalization due to interchanging beliefs and customs Globalization of Economy: Globalization due to business Environmental Determinism: Physical environment dictates the social environment Possibilism: Humans have the ability to adjust to the environment Population: Demography: The study of human populations Over Population: The definition of over population is having too many people and to little resources Carrying Capacity: The largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support Doubling Time: The time it takes for a population to double Four most over populated regions/Sparsely populated regions in the world (Over populated): East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Western Europe East Asia: One fifth of the world’s people live in east Asia. One degree longitude is 69 miles, so there is a new time zone every 1,035 miles. 9th Grade. Zero Population Growth- A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero. The plants they grew were more reliable. The number of people under the age of 15 and over the age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force. Push- When a industry goes bankrupt, workers will lose their jobs and might be forced to move to a different area because of a job opportunity. 5678 times. Malthus’s Critics: Many geographers believe Malthus’ theory is very pessimistic because they based on a belief that the world’s supply is fixed not expanding. There wasn’t as much medicine to cure diseases. As population increased irrigation was developed. The only difference is that at the end of stage 4 the country has a vast amount of technology and the population is much higher. Regions Formal (uniform) Functional (nodal) Vernacular (perceptual) Culture: Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a group of people in tradition Hearth: Where an idea originates Acculturation: The spread of cultural traits from one society to another Globalization of Culture: Globalization due to interchanging beliefs and customs Globalization of Economy: Globalization due to business Reference Maps: Regular maps showing cities, boundaries, mountains, or roads Thematic Maps: Maps highlighting a particular feature or a single variable such as temperature, city, size, or acreage in potatoes (Gives extra information) Isoline Maps: Show lines that connect points of equal value; Isolines are on topographic maps Choropleth Maps: Show the level of some variable within predefined regions, such as counties, states, or countries Dot Maps: Use a dot to represent the occurrence of some phenomenon in order to depict variation in density in a given area Cartograms: Maps that have distorted population Resolution: The amount of details or depth of a map Scale: Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface The three main types of scales are ratio (fraction) scales, bar scales, and written scales Small Scale: Depicts a large area (such as the state of Arizona) but with less detail Large Scale: Depicts a small area (such as downtown Phoenix) with great detail Cartography: The science of making maps Projection: The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map The most common type is the Robinson Projection However, maps depicting the entire world can distort shape, distance, relative size, and direction Toponym: The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface Has to be a natural feature Site: The physical character of a place Situation: The location of a place relative to other places (relative location) Meridian: An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles (longitude) The two main meridians are the Prime Meridian and the International Date Line Parallel: A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians (latitude) Time Zones: There are four major time zones in the United States (Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific). Epidemiologic Transition- Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition. During stage 3 it begins to slow down, though advances continue. Natural Increase: Natural- means a country’s growth rate excludes migration. Human-Environmental Interaction: Humans adapt to the environment Humans modify the environment Humans depend on the environment 4. About 80 million people are added to the world’s population each year. Census- A complete enumeration of a population. A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. 210270873 Natural increase is more moderate than stage 2 as well. There is a new time zone ever 15 degrees longitude. The current estimated world human population is 6,379,157,361. Metal and coal deposits might attract miners. Subject. The improved agricultural efficiency allowed more people to work in factories. Geographers define overpopulation as. Typically a TPR of 2.1 is equal to the ZPG. 2 Vocab. Total fertility rate- The average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. Ethiopia (horn of Africa)- Before embracing full scale farming Ethiopians were mainly hunters and gatherers. It is difficult to meet all the requirements to be able to travel in any way to a new country. The annual number of deaths per 1,000 population. To compute you subtract CBR from CDR. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the … Most of Europe’s people live in cities. Example- grunge music. Level. by ally_pagans, Oct. 2013. Cultural Push and Pull Factors: The 2 main push factors are slavery and political instability. The industrial revolution brought about rapid improvements in industrial technology. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives. Does not have to grow in numbers. The guest workers are not always excepted and can be treated unfairly. Population Pyramid: A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex. where humans domesticated plants and animals. Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people. (The reason two things are placed where they are – if they’re related they will probably be close) Spatial Distribution: The arrangement of phenomenon across the Earth’s surface Environmental Determinism: A nineteenth- and early twentieth- century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Religion Hierarchy: A hierarchical religion has a well-defined geographic structure and organizes territory into local administrative units (has “rankings” amongst the religion). ... and medical conditions. Probably the most important Mesoamerican agriculture is maize. 15 Qs . Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . China- By 5000 BC there were many agricultural communities spread throughout what is now China. Save. During this period primary food relied on hunting and gathering. These are the vocabulary words from Rubenstein's AP Human Geography textbook. The natural increase rate rose from 0.05 to 0.5 Some demographers divide stage 2 of the demographic transition into 2 parts. The number of people added each year has dropped slower than the NIR because the population base is much higher now than in the past. Search » All » Geography » AP Human Geography ... economic, and medical conditions: Life expectancy: Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa: Medical revolution: The percentage growth of a population in a year; CBR - … The branch of medical service concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality. Around 5,000 B.C. changes in their economic and social systems the Industrial Revolution. The time zones are based on Greenwich, England because at the time England was the most powerful country. djones. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities. It was here that the chicken and pig were domesticated and rice was farmed. South Asia: Another one fifth of the world’s population lives in south Asia. A combination of rain and heat depletes nutrients from the soil which prevents growing crops. 4 Diagnostic Tests 225 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept. Involved major improvements in ... medical revolution in America and Europe diffused to developing countries. Find GCSE resources for every subject. Paris, France) Not every country has a primate city Can have primate cities on large and small scales California’s primate city is Los Angeles America lacks a primate city Rank Size Rule: 2nd largest city is ½ of 1st 3rd largest city is 1/3 of 1st 4th largest city is ¼ of 1st World Cities: Have a large population density because of technology high rise They are cities that have great influence on the whole world They become a world city because they are in the center of the global economic system Highest Tier of World Cities- London, Tokyo, and New York (world’s business capital) 2nd Tier- Chicago, Washington and Los Angeles Megacities: Over 10 million people Experience a sudden rise in population where the infrastructure can’t support the population for a time For the most part Megacities are in LDC’s because the people there are forced to go to urban areas to find work Central Place Theory: Walter Christaller created the central place theory to explain the size and spacing of cities that specialize in selling goods and services The theory consisted of two basic concepts: 1. This was the first time humans domesticated plants and animals. Possibilism: The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives. life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. Time – Contract Workers -Recruited for a fixed period of time to work in mines or on plantations. Mesoamerica- From 8000 – 2000 the hunter gatherers in the region began to cultivate wild plants. Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North america that is diffused to the poorer countries (LDCs) improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled people to live longer and healthier lives Sex Ratio The number of males per 100 females in a population Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled people to live longer and healthier lives. The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate. Mortality: Two useful measures of mortality in addition to the crude death rate already discussed are the infant mortality rate and life expectancy. 30 seconds . The scientific study of population characteristics. This region ranges from Monaco to Russia. The modern movement to divide the world into states originated in Europe. Their most popular destinations were Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Thailand. GEOGRAPHY MODELS Preparing for the AP Human Geography Exam. h When you cross the International Date Line heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. 800,000 Vietnamese have reached the US since the end of the Vietnam War, another 1 million in other countries. Description. “suitcase cities” Typically a place without a high residence area Sandy Springs- used to be part of Atlanta, and then became its own official city To become an edge city, the city has to be newly developed and business oriented- more jobs than homes Ghettoization: Started in Europe Legal restriction of people to certain areas Used to be legalized but not anymore Ghettos refer to areas where populations of mixed income are confined to a certain area even though they might have the means and desire to move Can be economic or social “ghettos” Industrialization and Urbanization: The growing of industry and the growing of population and population density of a city One promotes the other The Industrial Revolution promoted Urbanization Megalopolis: A Greek word meaning great city D.C. Geographer Jean Gottmann named the region in the northeastern US- large metropolitan areas so close together that they now form one continuous urban complex, extending from north of Boston to south of Washington- Megalopolis Primate Cities: Having more than twice the population of the second largest city Center of culture for country Draws citizens because they feel they have to be apart of the city to be successful Most likely to become capital (ex. This figure is extremely precise, however, since there is no complete database on the world's population, and humans are constantly being born (at the rate of about 3 per second) and dying. Mesoamerica eventually went into a subsistence pattern based on the cultivation of plants. Economic Push and Pull Factors: Pull- People emigrate to places with better job opportunities. t People called refugees are forced to migrate form their countries because of fear of persecution because of their race, nationality, religion, or political opinion. The average number of births women bear in their lifetimes is. They use genetically modified plants, and sometimes animals. Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Example- In Sub-Saharan Africa, drought, poverty, and disease (mainly AIDS) are reducing life expectancy. Distinguishing Between Economic Migrants and Refugees Very difficult to distinguish between those seeking economic opportunities and refugees fleeing from persecution etc. There were many villages along rivers such as the Great Yellow River (Huang He). Geography. This caused industrialization in communities. A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods. Motor vehicles and airplanes are the easiest way to go from one place to another, but it is also the hardest requirements to meet when traveling. AP Human Geography Chapter 2 Vocabulary. Malthus did not foresee the advancement in technology that would help mankind survive. AP Human Geography- Unit 2: Population and Migration. Medical revolution: Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Distribution: The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface Density: The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area. Overpopulation- The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living. Environmental Push and Pull Factors: Pull- people are attracted to areas with warm climates, mountainsides, and seasides. Demographic Transition- The process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population. total fertility rate. Play this game to review Other. Movement People Goods Ideas 5. The percentage of people who are too young or too old to work in a society is known as .
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